Generation Of Computer PDF Download

Generation Of Computer PDF Download

First generation of computers (1942–1955)

o The commercial computer era began with UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer).
o In 1947, the United States Census Department was underdeveloped by two scientists Mauchly and Eckert.
o First generation computers were used during 1942–1955.
o They were based on vacuum tubes. Examples of first generation computers are ENIVACAND UNIVAC-1.

• Vacuum tubes were the only electronic component available during those days.
• Vacuum tube technology made possible to create electronic digital computers.
• These computers could calculate data in milliseconds.

• Computers were very large in size.
• They consumed large amounts of energy.
• Thousands of vacuum tubes caused them to heat up very quickly.
• They were not very reliable.
• Air conditioning was required.
• Constant maintenance was required.
• Non-portable.
• Expensive commercial production.
• Limited commercial use.
• Very slow speed.
• Limited programming capabilities.
• Machine language used only.
• Used magnetic drums that provide very little data storage.
• Punch card used for input.
• Versatile and not very defective.

Second Generation Computer (1955–1964)

o Second generation computers used transistors.
o Scientists at Bell Laboratories developed transistors in 1947.
o These scientists include John Barden, William Breton, and William Shockley.
o The size of the computer was reduced by replacing the vacuum tube with transistors.
Examples of second-generation computers are IBM 7094 series, IBM 1400 series and CDC 164, etc.

• Smaller in size than first-generation computers.
• Second generation computers were more reliable
• Less energy used and not heated.
• Extensive commercial use
• Better portability than first-generation computers.
• Can calculate data in better speed and microseconds
• Tape drives, magnetic disks, printers, etc. are increasingly used.
• Used assembly language instead of machine language.
• Accuracy improved.

• Cooling system was required
• Constant maintenance was required
• Commercial production was difficult
• Used only for specific purposes
• is not expensive and versatile
• Pooch cards were used for input.

Third Generation Computers (1964–1975)

o Third generation computers used integrated circuits (IC).
o Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrated circuits in 1958.
o It was an important invention in the computer field. The first IC was invented and used in 1961.
o The size of an IC is approximately IC square inches.
o A single IC chip can contain thousands of transistors.
o Computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable, and less expensive.
Examples of third-generation computers are IBM 370, IBM System / 360, UNIVAC 1108 and UNIVAC AC 9000 etc.

• Smaller in size than previous generations.
• More reliable.
• Less energy used
• Less heat generated than the previous two generations.
• Can calculate data in better speed and nanoseconds.
• Fan used for heat discharge to prevent damage.
• Maintenance costs were low because there is a hardware failure.
• completely general purpose
• Can be used for high-level languages.
• good storage
• versatile to an extent
• less expensive
• better accuracy
• Commercial production increased.
• Used for mouse and keyboard input.

• Air conditioning was required.
• Manufacturing of IC chips requires highly sophisticated technology.

Fourth Generation Computer (1975-present)

o Fourth generation computers started with the invention of the microprocessor.
o Microprocessors contain thousands of ICs.
o Ted Hoff created the first microprocessor for Intel in 1971.
o It was known as Intel 4004. The technology of integrated circuits rapidly improved.
o LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuit and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuit were designed.
o This greatly reduced the size of the computer.
o Modern microprocessors typically have a size of one square inch.
o It can contain millions of electronic circuits.
o Examples of fourth-generation computers are Apple Macintosh & IBM PC.

• More powerful and reliable than previous generations.
• Small in size
• Fast processing power with low power consumption
• Fan for heat discharge and thus to keep cool.
• No air conditioning is required.
• completely general purpose
• Professional Production
• Less repairs required.
• Cheapest among all generations
All types of high-level languages ​​can be used in this type of computer.
• Manufacturing of microprocessors requires the latest technology.

Fifth Generation Computer (Present and Beyond)

o Scientists are working hard on 5th generation computers with considerable successes.
o It is based on the technology of Artificial Intelligence (AI).
o A computer can understand spoken words and simulate human reasoning.

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